Welcome to Ningbo Yuefei Mould Co.,LTD website .

Sales Hotline:

0086-574-65332668

Search

CONTACT US

ADD.:C Zone Rising-Industry Park Ninghai,Ningbo,China
TEL:0086-574-65332668 / 65332667
FAX:0086-574-65332666 / 65332690
E-mail:business@yfmould.com
sales@yfmould.com

Copyright © 2018 Ningbo Yuefei Mould Co., Ltd.All rights reserved.​ 浙ICP备12004958号  Powered by www.300.cn​

NEWS

Metal 3D Printing: Laser Melting and Jet Technology - Benefits and Limitations

Classification:
Industry News
Author:
Source:
2018/03/20

Metal 3D printing is moving from laboratory-level applications to factory-level production applications. There is also a certain degree of competition between various technologies for metal 3D printing. In this issue, 3D Science Valley and Guyou have come to appreciate the characteristics and limitations of the powder bed metal melting technology, which is gaining momentum, and the metal binder 3D printing technology that is favored by investors.

Positive competition or dislocation competition

Compared to other direct metal 3D printing technologies, metal powder bed melting (PBF) is currently the most widely used metal 3D printing technology. Including last year's General Electric investment $ 1.4 billion acquisition of Concept Laser and Arcam, to further strengthen the metal powder bed melting market attention. PBF is considered as a direct metal 3D printing technology, including laser melting and electron beam melting. At present, the laser melting method is more widely used. In this area, many brands are active, including Concept Laser and Arcam acquired by GE, including the original metal 3D printing solution provider EOS Germany, Germany SLM Solutions, UK Renishaw, domestic Platinum, Beijing Longyuan, easy Plus three-dimensional, Xin precision and into the PBF field of traditional machine tool manufacturers Germany Express, and Demagensin Seiki.

However, from the investment market, a large number of investment funds poured into another type of metal 3D printing mode due to the high speed, high volume, and low cost factors, which are generally considered as indirect metal 3D printing. The indirect metal 3D printing technology, as the name implies, means that the metal parts obtained through the metal 3D printing process are not the final parts, but need to remove the chemical substances in the metal parts through the heat treatment process of the high temperature furnace to obtain dense Metal parts. Of course, the current indirect metal 3D printing technology includes a variety of different technologies. According to the market research of 3D Science Valley, a large class is based on the binder jetting technology represented by Exone, Desktop Metal, 3DEO, and Markforged, and the other is represented by Xjet. The NanoParticle Jetting technology, the third category is the resin 3D printing technology developed by Prodways and CEA Tech LITEN, and the fourth category may be classified as the metal 3D printing technology that HP will launch.

 

  PBF技术

  激光熔化过程开始的时候先将一层金属粉末铺设到构建托盘上,然后通过能量源(激光或电子束)层层熔化金属粉末。由于可实现十分复杂的产品制造,PBF技术不仅使得复杂产品的制造变得更加可行,而且还创造了更大的综合性的经济效益。

  例如,通过PBF技术制造具有成本效益的复杂模具的时候,如随形冷却模具。如何在最小周期时间内,高效冷却塑料产品成为随形冷却模具的设计与制造过程中关键的考量因素,而增材制造的随形冷却极大地优化了冷却效果,提高了模具寿命,提高了最终产品的质量。在这方面,上海悦瑞三维已经积累了丰富的3D打印随形冷却模具的设计与制造经验。

  再例如,GE通过长达10多年的探索将其喷油嘴的设计通过不断的优化、测试、再优化,将喷油嘴的零件数量从20多个减少一个。综合效益方面通过增材制造的方法不仅改善了喷油嘴容易过热和积碳的问题,还将喷油嘴的使用寿命提高了5倍, 并且将提高LEAP发动机的性能。

  而空客的仿生学结构机舱也颠覆了传统机舱的生产方法和力学性能。这种名为Scalmalloy的零件的串行生产不仅对减少钛金属的浪费起到重要的作用,还通过减重,为飞机节约了大量的燃油消耗。

  不过从实验室级别的应用走向生产,PBF的局限性也显现出来了。例如,不锈钢的熔化温度可接近2500华氏度,想像一下当每个单独的3D打印设备都需要不断的消耗能源的时候才能实现零件的加工,整体来说对能源的消耗是不容低估的。除非,通过PBF技术所创造的综合效益如上所述的几个经典案例这么明显。

  所以说,用于批量生产领域,这样的高成本通常在加工通过传统方式难以加工出来的特殊零件的时候才有意义,包括那些具有极其复杂的内部通道的零件,以及喷气发动机燃料喷嘴和卫星组件等高端部件。

  除了能源的消耗,PBF技术还受到了材料的限制和可加工尺寸限制、材料价格、过程中控制以及需要添加支撑结构等各种限制,这些因素成为制约PBF技术走向普及化的原因。当然,随着工艺的提升和通过软件对质量控制能力的提高,PBF技术也在不断地突破自身的局限性。

  材料喷射+烧结

  Exone,3DEO,Markforged和Desktop Metal所采用的间接金属3D打印技术,技术原理是通过材料喷射和烧结工艺的相互结合来生产完全密度的金属零部件。 成本较低的设备也意味着零件成本大大降低,大批量成本较低的零部件是走向生产的关键要素。